|45x186 45mm NS-45 aircraft cannon|
|This rare caliber was an experimental project and
shortly used in the Yak-9K fighter plane. The NS-37 aircraft cannon was
fitted with a 45mm barrel, to get the new gun NS-45, designation
OKB-16-45. It weighted 152kg and fired 250rpm. It was developed by A.
Nudelman and A. Suranov of the OKB-16 in 1944 and was also installed in
the engine vee, firing through the propeller hub. Recoil was heavily
increased with the increased projectile weight, so a large muzzle break
was fitted to the barrel.
Only 53 Yak-9K planes fitted with the NS-45 gun were evaluated by special pilots in the war in1944. The ammunition capacity in the fighter planes was 29 rounds. The NS-45 proofed itself unreliable and was not adopted for service.
Not very clear information is available about the
A different report also mentions a 1065g AP shell with a muzzle velocity of 850m/s that could penetrate 58mm of steel plate. Any other particulars are sadly not known.
|Any further information appreciated!|
|45x310R 45mm Russian M1932 antitank gun and universal guns|
|This round was introduced in 1930 for use in the
M1930 tank gun for
the T-24 tank but was mainly used in WWII in the Russian light antitank
guns M1932, M1937 and M1942. The Germans called their spoils of war
4,5cm Pak 184(r).
The M1937 antitank gun was basically a scaled up version of the Gernam 37mm Rheinmetall antitank gun and was actually out of date when Russia had to enter the war. The gun fired armour piercing grenades with a muzzle velocity of 760m/s at a rate of 15-20 rds per minute (manually loaded), the antitank gun weighted 560kg. Two carriages were designed for it, one for horse traction and one for towing behind a vehicle, both versions used wire-wheels. During the war the M1937 was modernized and received a longer barrel and the shield armour was increased from 4,5mm to 7mm. This new gun was designated M1942 and reportedly used improved ammunition with a greater propellant charge to reach a muzzle velocity of 820m/s. However, this gun was still underpowered for the German tanks at this time of the war.
This caliber was also used in the M1932 tank gun on the A-20, A-32, T-26 and T-100 tanks, the tank gun was called KwK 194/5(r) by the Germans. The tank gun was also referred to as 45mm 20K and was modernized in the M1934 and M1938 version. Also, a 45mm tank gun designated VT-42/43 is reported, however no info is available.
Ammunition was always fixed rounds, swaged-in
percussion primers were used in the antitank guns, screwed in
electrical primers were used in tank guns, so these two types were not
5 cartridges are packed in a suitcase like metal box
with handle that measures about 490x345x60mm.
The following rounds were used in WWII:
The cartridge designation system in this caliber can be quite confusing because projectile and cartridge case often have different index numbers. Generally speaking, the index on the projectile only referres to the projectile and the index on the cartridge case referres to the complete round.
For example the projectile fitted is marked "BR-240" and its cartridge case is marked "UBR-243".
The last figure "0" always indicates that this projectile can be used with all gun versions in this caliber family. In our case all 45mm tank and antitank guns. On the other hand, the last figure "3" on the cartridge case specifies this round only to be used in (a) specific gun(s). In our case the number "3" indicates the use in the anti tank guns M1932, M1937 and M1942.
Near end and post WWII produced rounds may
also have a different HE contence (A-IX-2 instead of TNT) and therefor
also a slightly different HE charge weight.
Target practice and inert drill rounds exist as well, of course.
|The above cutaway picture was kindly provided by "Rigby".|
|UO-243 shell in cutaway, note how long and massive this projectile is.|
|UBRZ-243 shell in cutaway, note the cardboard assembly that distances the propellant charge.|
|45mm AAA gun:|
|Different 45mm universal and anti aircraft guns
exists as well, they used the same cartridge case as the anti tank gun
but the rounds had some different projectiles.
They are the 45mm universal guns "21-K", "21-KM" and "80-K" and the 45mm anti aircraft guns 40-K and 41-K, 45mm gun M-18.
No particulars are known about these guns.
|45x386SR 45mm SM-20-ZIF1 and ZIF-68-1 anti aircraft gun|
|The SM-20 consists of a quadrupple mount with
linkless feed sytem and a total rate of fire of 540-640 rounds per
minute. Other details are unknown.
The following rounds were used:
Inert filled target practise shells and inert drill rounds were most likely used as well.
|The above pictures were submitted by Harry Galloway
along with the
The empty case with the empty shell weights 2948g together, the shell is 145,5mm long from the case mouth to the top. The shell is originally crimped to the case, so no shell weight could be measured. The fuze has a length of 62,5mm, the shell leads about 62mm into the case and has a tracer cavity in its base. If you look at the case mouth, there is a second driving band located inside the case, at the second crimp. The high explosive cavity of the shell is 25mm wide and 95mm deep.
The following markings are stamped in:
The headstamp has a milled recess for the
loading-clip as have the S-60 gun cases. The headstamp is marked:
10k 184-0 and on the
outer rim of the head: H C 2K n
|57x165RR 57mm N-57 aircraft cannon|
|Cannons and their ammunition from left to right: N-57, barrel of the NS-45, NS-37 as displayed in a Russian museum.|
|Sorry, no other information is known, anything further is well appreciated!|
|57x348SR 57mm Russian S-60 AAA|
|This gun, the M1950, was introduced in the late 50s
and is basically referred to as S-60 anti aircraft gun.
It is a medium range recoil operated cannon and replaced the earlier 37mm AA weapons almoust throughout the Warsaw Pact.
Considering the design of the gun, Soviet engineers must have studied the wartime German "5,5cm Geraet 58" AAA. The weight of the S-60 was 4,6 tons and it had a 4160mm long barrel with destinctive muzzle break and downfoldable shield. The S-60 gun is fixed to a four wheel carriage and it was also used against light armored ground vehicles in the ground support role. A S-60 battery generally consists of six guns, a fire-control radar, and a fire-control director. The earliest versions had a PUAZO-5 fire-control director and a SON-4 radar, however, improved director/radar combinations were used in subsequent years.
The ammunition is fed in 4-round clips into the gun, the rate of fire was 105 to 120rpm, range was 6000m with radar guidance, 4000m with optical sights.
China also built its version of the S-60 and called it Type 59 anti aircraft gun.
A self propelled version of the Russian gun, the ZSU-57-2 had a double barrel cannon designated S-68 mounted on a modified T-54 fuselage. It was introduced in 1957 and has basically the same characteristics as its single barrel brother, however, the ZSU-57-2 was not radar guided. The self propelled AA gun had 316 rounds of ammunition storage on board and is now considered as obsolete and was replaced by SAM systems arround 1980. China called its self propelled guns Type 80.
The AK-725 AA gun was the Naval version of the S-60
gun and was introduced in 1958. It was mounted in single,
double and quadruple mounts
designated ZIF-31on many early destroyers.
The S-60 type of guns were widely used in all RFAS states, it also was the main small AA gun of the North Vietnamese army. They may still be in use in the former Yugoslavia and the Middle East.
The HE-T shells have a blunt ogive shape and a long
burning (about 12 sec.) No. 8 tracer element. A single large gilding
metal driving band is
fitted that has pronounced grooves. Cartridge cases are brass,
silicon-brass or steel, those made of silicon-brass have the letter "K"
imprinted in the headstamp.
The UOR-281U-IN is basically the same as the UOR-281U
but filled inert and with a dummy fuze. This practice shell is painted
black above the bourrelet and gray below and has white lettering and
the word "INERT" painted on in Russian.
5 rounds are packed in a gray-green lacquered wooden box that measures 650x580x210mm and weights 49kg. Ammunition is/was manufactured by Bulgaria, China, former Czech Republic, Egypt, Yugoslavia, Poland and Russia. Early Russian cases and newer Polish cases can be made of steel as well, cases of Silicon-brass were used as well.
|Ammunition used in these guns:|
|HE-T, APHE-T and inert drill shell with cut-aways below.|
|57x480R 57mm ZIS-2 antitank gun|
|In 1940 the fear of heavily armoured German tanks
created the demand for a more powerful antitank gun. Grabin's design
bureau changed their experimental 76.2 mm F-24 regimental gun only
minorly to receive a 57mm antitank gun designated F-31. In October 1940
a prototype F-31 gun was built by factory number 92 that should achive
a muzzle velocity of 1000m/s with a 76mm divisional gun cartridge case
necked down to 57mm caliber, carrying a 3140g AP projectile.
In early 1941 this gun was accepted for service as ZIS-2 antitank gun but mass production was cancelled in December the same year because the fear of heavily armoured German tanks prooved to be wrong.
However, this official statement did possibly not tell all the truth, because the manufacturing of a over 4m long barrel turned out to be very difficult and therefor very expensive.
In June 1943 costs seemed to have been reduced and the ZIS-2 was re-intruduced as M1943 antitank gun to deal with the heavy German tanks on Russian ground.
The ZIS-2 weighted 1150kg, had a crew of 4 men who manually loaded 13-15rds/min and fired to a maximum range of 8400m. The single axle carridge elevated the 4160mm long barrel up to 55°, overall lenght of the gun was 6,8m. The spoiled M1943 guns were called the "5,7cm Pak 208(r)" by the Germans in WWII.
After the war, the guns were upgraded and fitted with a second axle and a 10kW engine to become the self propelled Ch-26 (M 1955) gun. Both guns are obsolete now and are, if ever today, only kept in reserve units.
This ammunition was also used in the airborne assault gun vehicle ASU-57 that was a light tank hunter and on the T-34-57 tank hunter tank. Both are obsolete now.
The ZIS-2 guns were used in Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia, former East Germany, Hungaria, Poland, Romania, and Russia.
Cartridge cases are brass or steel and hold 970g of
propellant with the HE FRAG and Canister Shot rounds, 1500kg of
propellant with the standard
APHE-T rounds and 1600g - 1700g with the tungsten carbide core
projectiles. Ammunition was manufactured by Russia. The following
maximum armor penetration was achieved: APHE-T UBR-271
85mm/60°/500m, APHE-T UBR-271K 50mm/60°/1500m, HVAP-T
5 Cartridges were packed in a wooden box measuring 804x534x190mm that had various descriptive letters stamped on and weighted 50kg (data for HEFRAG rounds).
9 different rounds are known:
|Inert filled practice shells and drill rounds are likely to exist.|
|Drawing of UO-271U round and below from left to right: UBR-271, UBR-271SP, UBR-271K and UBR-271P|
|Legend: m= mass of projectile, om= mass of complete round, pm=mass of propellant, l= length of projectile, ol= overall length of complete round, Vo= muzzle velocity, cartridge case headstamps are given in the clockwise system, the clock-sections divided by "|" for better reading. The "|" does not mean an imprinted line in the headstamp.Example: symbol at 12 o´clock | 3 o´clock | 6 o´clock | 9 o´clock|